Tag Archives: Report

Pre-contractual Information in Retail Energy Markets – Experimental Consumer Research – October 2018

Sector:
Client:ec-dg-justice-consumers
Published: November, 2018
Document type:Report

The European Commission commissioned LE Europe, Deloitte and Ipsos to study pre-contractual information in retail energy markets. The study used desk research, stakeholder consultations, a consumer survey and a behavioural experiment to understand consumers’ decision-making, attitudes and switching behaviour, and how to improve clarity and comparability in energy prices, consumption and contractual information. The study […]

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2017/2018 SME Annual Report – SME Growing Beyond Borders – November 2018

Sector:
Client:ec-dg-growth
Published: November, 2018
Document type:Report

The annual report, prepared on a yearly basis as part of the SME Performance Review, provides a synopsis of the size, structure and importance of SMEs to the European economy and an overview of the past and forecasted performance of SMEs from 2008 to 2020. Comparisons with partner countries outside the EU and with the […]

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Behavioural Study on Consumers’ Engagement in the Circular Economy – October 2018

Sector:Behavioural Economics
Client:european-commission-consumers-health-food-executive-agency-chafea
Published: October, 2018
Document type:Report

The objective of this study was to provide policy-relevant insights on consumers’ engagement in the circular economy. The study involved several research tasks including a literature review across all EU countries as well as third countries, stakeholder interviews, consumer focus groups in 4 EU countries, an online consumer survey in 12 EU countries and an […]

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Online Market Segmentation – Experimental Consumer Research and Economic Valuation – August 2018

Sector:Behavioural Economics
Client:ec-dg-justice-consumers
Published: September, 2018
Document type:Report

The European Commission commissioned LE Europe, Deloitte and Ipsos to study online personalised pricing and offers and targeted advertising. The study used desk research, stakeholder consultations, mystery shopping, a consumer survey and a behavioural experiment to understand how e-commerce websites use consumers’ personal information, and consumers’ attitudes and behaviour when faced with personalisation online. The […]

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The EU Single Market: Impact on Member States – December 2017

Sector:Behavioural Economics
Client:american-chamber-of-commerce-to-the-eu-amcham-eu
Published: December, 2017
Document type:Report

This study provides up-to-date quantitative assessments of the impact of the Single Market on five broad economic indicators (GDP , household consumption, business investment, employment, and productivity) in each of the Member States, and estimates the impact it could have in future, if integration was deepened by each Member State. The findings highlight that that […]

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Study on Consumers’ Decision-making in Insurance Services: A Behavioural Economics Perspective – November 2017

Sector:Behavioural Economics
Client:ec-dg-justice-consumers
Published: November, 2017
Document type:Report

This study focused on consumers’ decision-making in the non-life insurance market when purchasing domestically and cross-border. It tested ways to help consumers make better decisions using a behavioural experiment, collected complementary data on the supply side of the market, and examined potential savings consumers could make.

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Annual Report on European SMEs 2016/17 – Focus on Self-employment and Companion Working Paper – November 2017

Sector:Behavioural Economics
Client:ec-dg-growth
Published: November, 2017
Document type:Report

The annual report, prepared on a yearly basis, provides a synopsis of the size, structure and importance of SMEs to the European economy and an overview of the past and forecasted performance of SMEs from 2008 to 2018. Comparisons with partner countries outside the EU and with the large enterprise sector are also included. The […]

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IPID Consumer Testing and Design Work – August 2016

Sector:Behavioural Economics
Client:ipid-consumer-testing-design-work-august-2016
Published: August, 2016
Document type:Report

EIOPA commissioned a consortium consisting of LE Europe, Ipsos MORI and Academy Design Partners to undertake consumer testing on the design of a standardised presentation format of an Insurance Product Information Document (IPID). The findings of the consumer testing, as presented in this report, were intended to assist EIOPA to reach a view on the […]

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Understanding Consumer Vulnerability in the EU’s Key Markets – February 2016

Sector:Behavioural Economics
Client:understanding-consumer-vulnerability-in-the-eus-key-markets-february-2016
Published: February, 2016
Document type:Report

This study for the European Commission provides a new definition of vulnerable consumers, a new methodology for measuring consumer vulnerability and new insights into the actual patterns of consumer vulnerability. The large scale study employed stakeholder consultations, consumer surveys, focus groups and behavioural experiments across the EU28 plus Iceland and Norway

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Consumer Market Study on the Functioning of Legal and Commercial Guarantees for Consumers in the EU – December 2015

Sector:Behavioural Economics
Client:european-commission
Published: December, 2015
Document type:Report

This study for the European Commission explores how well markets for Legal and Commercial Guarantees (LCGs) operate for consumers in Europe. The study includes consumer surveys and behavioural experiments to investigate how well consumers understand LCGs. The study provides policy recommendations to remedy any shortcomings detected. In particular, the results of will be used to […]

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Smart Single Market Regulation – September 2015

Sector:Public Policy
Client:European Parliament
Published: September, 2015
Document type:Report

This study proposes a consolidated governance system that would serve as a tool for smart Single Market regulation toward 2020 and beyond. It outlines areas for improvement in Single Market regulation through the adoption of performance-based policy concepts; and reviews the scope for making better use of the Single Market governance tools to improve the […]

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Study on the Coverage, Functioning and Consumer Use of Comparison Tools and Third-party Verification Schemes for Such Tools – March 2015

Sector:Behavioural Economics
Client:european-commission-executive-agengy-for-health-and-consumers-eahc
Published: March, 2015
Document type:Report

The European Commission has published the study on consumers’ use of comparison tools. As part of the study LE Europe completed a behavioural experiment in 15 EU countries that investigated consumer understanding and use comparison tools. The study forms part of the evidence base used by the Commission to develop, together with stakeholders, a series […]

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Study on the Impact of the Energy Label – and Potential Changes to It – on Consumer Understanding and on Purchase Decisions – January 2015

Sector:Behavioural Economics
Client:EC DG Energy
Published: January, 2015
Document type:Report

This behavioural economics study for the European Commission investigates the impact of potential changes to the EU energy label on consumer understanding and purchasing decisions. The pan-European study uses an online and field experiment combined with a consumer survey and focus groups to provide insights on the performance of alternative label designs.

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Reaching Higher: Reforming Student Loans to Broaden Access to Postgraduate Study – October 2014

Sector:Education and Labour Markets
Client:Institute for Public Policy Research
Published: October, 2014
Document type:Report

LE Europe were commissioned by the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) to model the costs to the Exchequer associated with the introduction of a loan scheme for postgraduate students.

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Study on the Functioning of the Consumer Credit Markets in the European Union – May 2014

Sector:Education and Labour Markets
Client:EC DG Health and Consumers
Published: May, 2014
Document type:Report

The study assesses the degree to which Consumer Credit Directive (CCD) fulfilled its principal objectives, namely: a) fostering an internal credit market in the EU, with a positive impact, in particular on cross­border competition; and, b) providing a high level of protection of consumers regarding consumer credits. The study focuses on the impact of the […]

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Consumer Protection Aspects of Financial Services

Sector:Education and Labour Markets
Client:European Parliament
Published: February, 2014
Document type:Report

The financial crisis of 2007/2008 has clearly shown that inadequate consumer protection, especially in the US mortgage market, was a major contributor to financial instability. Moreover, many holders of sub-prime mortgages suffered considerable harm as a result of mis-selling or inappropriate selling. However, the USA is not the only country where weak consumer protection resulted […]

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Voluntary Food Labelling Schemes Study

Sector:Behavioural Economics
Client:EC DG SANCO
Published: January, 2014
Document type:Report

This market study for the European Commission included a pan-European behavioural experiment to test consumer willingness to pay for products associated with voluntary food labelling schemes. The study also included a web sweep of voluntary food labelling scheme in Europe, a consumer survey and assessment of schemes performance with the requirements of the 2010 Commission […]

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Analysis of Developments in the Fields of Direct Investment and M&A — Part II: Foreign Firms’ Contributions to EU Economic Performance

Sector:Behavioural Economics
Client:EC DG Internal Market and Services
Published: December, 2013
Document type:Report

Part II of Analysis of developments in the fields of direct investment and M&A considered the performance of foreign firms that are recipients of FDI.   Domestic firms far outweigh foreign-owned firms in the EU; however, the contributions of foreign-owned firms to economic performance are disproportionately high in terms of productivity, employment generation and the […]

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Analysis of Developments in the Fields of Direct Investment and M&A — Part I 2013 Developments in World-wide and EU Capital Flows

Sector:Behavioural Economics
Client:EC DG Internal Market and Services
Published: December, 2013
Document type:Report

Part I of Analysis of developments in the fields of direct investment and M&A reviews developments in international capital flows (FDI, portfolio investment, other investments and reserves) world-wide and more particularly between EU Member States and the rest of the world and within the EU.

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The Economic and Societal Benefits Deriving from the Presence of Hyundai and Kia in Europe (update)

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:Hyundai Motor Company
Published: December, 2013
Document type:Report

LE Europe published updated figures on the contribution of Hyundai and Kia to the European economy. The key findings are: Almost 317,000 people owe their jobs to the presence of Hyundai and Kia in the European Union Hyundai and Kia contributed €2.1 billion in taxes and duties to European governments in 2012 The majority of […]

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2012/2013 Annual Report on European SMEs

Sector:Public Policy
Client:EC DG Enterprise and Industry
Published: November, 2013
Document type:Report

The 2012/13 report on European SMEs was prepared by a consortium comprising CARSA, DIW, DIW econ, Innova, LE Europe, Manchester Institute of Innovation Research (University of Manchester) and PwC Luxembourg. The report provides an overview of the size, structure and importance of SMEs to the European economy and their contribution to growth and jobs, as emphasised in the Small […]

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Lotteries in Europe

Sector:Public Policy
Client:European Lotteries
Published: November, 2013
Document type:Report

The note published by European Lotteries first describes recent EU27 trends in the value of the sales of lottery products  and gross gambling revenue (the value of the sales of lottery products and prizes paid to buyers of such lottery products). Next it underlines the significant contribution of lotteries to society in terms of taxes […]

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Performance-based Full Policy Cycle for the Digital Single Market

Sector:Public Policy
Client:European Parliament
Published: October, 2013
Document type:Report

A benchmarking exercise of a number of Digital Single Market policy initiatives recently proposed by the European Commission against the performance-based policy model shows that the current policy development and assessment process could be improved markedly by following the performance-based policy model set out in the present study.

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The Cost of Non-Europe: the Untapped Potential of the European Single Market

Sector:Public Policy
Client:European Commision – Bureau of European Policy Advisors (BEPA)
Published: October, 2013
Document type:Report

While the growth-creating potential of the Single Market has long been recognised, evidence on the remaining untapped potential of the Single Market (where such potential lies, how much additional growth it could deliver, and which policy measures would help unlock it) was largely missing. LE Europe, in association with PwC, were commissioned by the European […]

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Performance-based Full Policy Cycle for the Digital Single Market

Sector:Public Policy
Client:European Parliament
Published: October, 2013
Document type:Report

A benchmarking exercise of a number of Digital Single Market policy initiatives recently proposed by the European Commission against the performance-based policy model shows that the current policy development and assessment process could be improved markedly by following the performance-based policy model set out in the present study. The key features of a performance-based full […]

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GSA Releases 2013 Sat Nav Market Report (Issue 3)

Sector:Space
Client:The European GNSS Agency (GSA)
Published: October, 2013
Document type:Report

The European GNSS Agency (GSA) has published the third Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS) Market Report. This third issue of the GSA’s annual report on the global GNSS market is based on an advanced forecasting model (the Market Monitoring and Forecasting Tool) developed and implemented by LE Europe.

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A European Single Point of Contact

Sector:Public Policy
Client:European Parliament
Published: July, 2013
Document type:Report

This research study for the European Parliament discusses the features and value added of a European single point of contact. The large number of European level online services combined with an extensive range of services at national level generates complexity in identification of the most appropriate services, and in understanding their different competencies. Such complexity […]

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Study on the Impact of Directive 2007/64/EC on Payment Services in the Internal Market and on the Application of Regulation (EC) No. 924/2009 on Cross-border Payments in the Community

Sector:Finance
Client:EC DG Internal Market and Services
Published: July, 2013
Document type:Report

The study, undertaken with iff and PaySys, examines the effects of Directive 2007/64/EC on payment services in the internal market (PSD) and Regulation (EC) No 924/2009 on fees and charges for cross-border payments (Regulation 924) and identifies a number of potential amendments to current version of the PSD.  The report is based on four different […]

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Levelling the Playing Field in the Single Market

Sector:Public Policy
Client:European Parliament
Published: June, 2013
Document type:Report

The study for the European Parliament shows that the size of the shadow economy in the EU in 2012 is estimated at approximately EUR 2.35 trillion. The shadow economy represents a threat to the Single Market, leads to substantial budgetary difficulties, puts considerable pressure on legitimate businesses, and in long run, limits the potential growth […]

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Study on Means to Protect Consumers in Financial Difficulty: Personal Bankruptcy, Datio in Solutum of Mortgages, and Restrictions on Debt Collection Abusive Practices

Sector:Finance
Client:Financial Services User Group via DG Internal Market and Services
Published: April, 2013
Document type:Report

Commissioned on behalf of the Financial Services Users Group by DG Internal Market and Services, and authored by LE Europe, this report examines all formal debt reduction solutions which allow consumers to return to a financially sustainable path by eliminating some or all of their debts, including providing a comprehensive description of: the availability and […]

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The Economic and Societal Benefits of Deriving from the Presence of Hyundai and Kia in Europe

Sector:Public Policy
Client:Hyundai Motor Company
Published: February, 2013
Document type:Report

The study highlights the contribution of Hyundai and Kia, two of the most successful car manufacturers operating in Europe, in a number of dimensions, namely: the contribution to employment and GDP; training and development of the labour force; the contribution to European R&D and innovation; the contribution to the development of the automotive supply chain […]

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Research on EU Product Labelling

Sector:Public Policy
Client:EC DG Energy
Published: December, 2012
Document type:Report

This study by LE Europe, Ipsos MORI and AEA investigated the possibility of creating a product label which provides consumers with information about the environmental lifecycle performance of products (televisions, washing machines and light bulbs). The information may be added to the current EU Energy Efficiency label. Pan-European behavioural experiments  were used in conjunction with […]

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Analysis of Developments in the Fields of Direct Investment and M&A – 2012 Report Part I: Recent Developments

Sector:Finance
Client:EC DG Internal Market and Services
Published: November, 2012
Document type:Report

The study examines recent trends in FDI and capital movements. Overall, the recovery in world-wide FDI witnessed in 2010 continued in 2011, after the sharp decline in the period 2007-09. In 2011, the level of worldwide inward FDI reached €1.1 trillion, increasing by 10.9% from its level in 2010. However, the 2011 level is still […]

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Analysis of Developments in the Fields of Direct Investment and M&A – 2012 Report Part II: The EU, the BRICs and Other Emerging Economies

Sector:Finance
Client:EC DG Internal Market and Services
Published: November, 2012
Document type:Report

The study looks more closely into the evolution of FDI between the EU and the BRICs, considering where the EU’s position and prospects are, both as origin and as destination for BRIC FDI. Global investment trends show that over the past 15 years the BRICs, as well as other emerging economies, have become increasingly important […]

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Non-bank Financial Institutions: Assessment of Their Impact on the Stability of the Financial System

Sector:Finance
Client:N/A
Published: November, 2012
Document type:Report

The study examines how non-bank financial institutions (in particular money market funds, private equity firms, hedge funds, pension funds, insurance undertakings and central counterparties; and UCITS and ETFs) had performed over the last decade and during the financial crisis. The report addresses the risks run by each of this type of institutions (credit, counterparty, liquidity, […]

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Socio-economic Impacts – Evaluation of Norwegian Space Programs (with PwC)

Sector:Space
Client:Ministry of Trade and Industry (Norway)
Published: July, 2012
Document type:Report

An independent socio-economic impact assessment of Norway’s participation in the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Support Funds. Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) was employed based on EC impact assessment guidelines, established economic principles and international best practice (e.g. UK government HM Treasury’s Green Book). Quantified additive benefits comprise wages/salaries (income tax, value added tax, retailer sales […]

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GSA Releases 2012 Sat Nav Market Report

Sector:Space
Client:The European GNSS Agency (GSA)
Published: May, 2012
Document type:Report

The European GNSS Agency (GSA) has published the second Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS) Market Report. This second issue of the GSA’s annual report on the global GNSS market is based on an advanced forecasting model (the Market Monitoring and Forecasting Tool) developed and implemented by LE Europe.

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Regulation on the Approval and Market Surveillance of Two- or Three-wheeled Vehicles and Quadricycles

Sector:Public Policy
Client:European Parliament
Published: February, 2012
Document type:Report

This study is a three-part impact assessment of amendments proposed by the IMCO Committee to three measures contained in the European Commission’s proposal for a “Regulation on the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheeled vehicles and quadricycles”. The first part concerns the fitting of an anti-lock braking system (ABS), the second part concerns […]

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The Impact of State Guarantees on Banks’ Debt Issuing Costs, Lending and Funding Policy

Sector:Finance
Client:N/A
Published: February, 2012
Document type:Report

This study investigates the effectiveness of state guarantee schemes and ad hoc guarantees given to banks over 2008-10. The study analyses the market value of state guarantees as reflected in the costs banks faced in raising funds on wholesale financial markets and whether state guarantees influenced the funding and (ultimately) lending behaviour of banks. The […]

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Basic Banking Services

Sector:Finance
Client:European Parliament
Published: December, 2011
Document type:Report

This briefing paper examines the current state of play in the access to basic banking services, as well as the expected benefits of providing such access for citizens as well as for cross-border trade, in particular e-commerce. It also identifies the banking services that would ideally be covered by any initiative and the main hurdles […]

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McDonald’s Economic Footprint in Europe

Sector:Public Policy
Client:McDonalds
Published: November, 2011
Document type:Report

This report examines McDonald’s economic footprint in Europe in terms of contribution to GDP growth, raw material sourcing, job creation and business opportunities via its franchising model. The analysis shows that McDonald’s continued to grow throughout the recession of 2007-09 and its growth has consistently exceeded EU GDP growth as well as the growth of […]

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Analysis of Developments in the Fields of Direct Investment and M&A (mergers and Acquisitions) – Part II

Sector:Finance
Client:EC DG Internal Market
Published: November, 2011
Document type:Report

This report consists of three papers providing analyses of topics relevant to foreign direct investment: bilateral investment treaties, a financial transactions tax and investment screening mechanisms. Bilateral investment treaties An empirical analysis of the influence bilateral investment treaties (BITs) on the pattern of FDI flows in the EU was carried out. A gravity model of […]

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Analysis of Developments in the Fields of Direct Investment and M&A (mergers and Acquisitions) – Part I

Sector:Finance
Client:N/A
Published: November, 2011
Document type:Report

This report provides a comprehensive analysis of developments in the fields of direct investment and M&A in 2010-11. This includes a descriptive analysis of inward and outward FDI stocks and flows (including FDI resulting from M&A activity) within the EU and between the EU and third countries, by sector, type of FDI, etc. Major factors […]

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Consumer Behaviour in a Digital Environment

Sector:Finance
Client:European Parliament
Published: August, 2011
Document type:Report

In a study for the European Parliament, LE Europe has analysed the extent to which digital opportunities impact on consumer behaviour and the interaction between consumers and businesses. At issue is how consumers benefit from the digital environment and whether and how they change their purchasing strategies. E-developments and firm behaviour that impact on consumer […]

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Study on Consumers’ Postal Practices and Socio-economic Needs in Terms of the Quality and Provision of the Priority Postal Service

Sector:Public Policy
Client:ARCEP and DGCIS of Ministry of Economiy, Finance and Industry
Published: June, 2011
Document type:Report

The study focuses on the postal practices and needs of households and businesses, especially SMEs. The first part of the study examines the extent to which the postal service is important to users, the users’ knowledge of postal products, their current postal practices, their sensitivity to the time it takes for a postal product to […]

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SKYLON Assessment Report, European Space Agency

Sector:Space
Client:N/A
Published: May, 2011
Document type:Report

A review of the SKYLON spaceplane by the European Space Agency (ESA) including ESA’s review of LE Europe’ assessment of the future benefits of investment in the SKYLON reusable launcher for Reaction Engines.

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Competition-promoting Consumer Behaviour

Sector:Public Policy
Client:Danish Competition and Consumer Authority
Published: March, 2011
Document type:Report

The Danish Competition and Consumer Authority (DCCA) has published two reports analysing the interactions between consumer behaviour and competition in retail markets; one of which was written by LE Europe. The study undertaken by LE Europe analyses consumer behaviour during the purchasing processes and is based on a survey of 6,000 Danish consumers. The study […]

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Study on the Costs and Benefits of Different Policy Options for Mortgage Credit

Sector:Finance
Client:N/A
Published: March, 2011
Document type:Report

The costs and benefits of potential changes in the following four mortgage policy areas are considered in the study, which was published by the European Commission on 31 March 2011: pre-contractual information, the definition of the annual percentage rate of charge, early repayment and responsible lending and borrowing. The approach to assessing the costs and […]

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The Nature and Impact of Hardcore Cartels

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:Danish Competition and Consumer Authority
Published: January, 2011
Document type:Report

This study analyses the nature and impact of hardcore cartels and other economic crimes based on a review of relevant academic literature. The study was commissioned by the Danish Competition and Consumer Authority and its findings feed into work being undertaken by a committee set up by the Danish Government with a mandate to assess […]

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The Functioning of Retail Electricity Markets in the European Union

Sector:Public Policy
Client:EC DG SANCO
Published: November, 2010
Document type:Report

LE Europe, in cooperation with Ipsos, IBF Consulting and CRIOC, were commissioned by the EC DG Health and Consumers (SANCO) to examine the functioning of retail electricity markets in the European Union. Based on consumer surveys, stakeholder surveys and mystery shopping exercises carried out in the 27 Member States, the study shows that, although consumers […]

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Understanding the Impact of MiFID in the Context of National and Global Regulatory Innovations

Sector:Finance
Client:City of London Corporation
Published: October, 2010
Document type:Report

Since its EU-wide implementation in November 2007, MiFID has significantly modified the environment and structure of secondary market equity trading in Europe. For this research, LE Europe conducted empirical analysis and stakeholder interviews to clarify whether as a result of MiFID: the expected benefits on the integration of EU financial markets have materialised; whether national […]

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Economic and Social Impact of Software and Software-based Services (SSBS)

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:EC DG Information Society
Published: August, 2010
Document type:Report

The study evaluates the potential economic and social impact of software-based services in the EU and identifies the drivers of growth and competitiveness of the sector, the current barriers limiting the sector’s development, the policy actions needed to remove those barriers, and the economic and social impact of such actions.  

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Study on the Economic Benefits of Privacy-enhancing Technologies (PETs)

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:EC DG Freedom, Security and Justice
Published: July, 2010
Document type:Report

This report for the European Commission’s DG Freedom, Security and Justice investigates the economic benefits of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) for data controllers, with a particular focus on SMEs. Based on consultations with data protection authorities in 12 Member States, as well as on a large-scale survey of businesses and a number of case studies detailing […]

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Study Analysing Possible Changes in the Minimum Rates and Structures of Excise Duties on Alcoholic Beverages

Sector:Public Policy
Client:EC DG Taxation and Customs Union
Published: May, 2010
Document type:Report

This report for EC DG Taxation and Customs Union considers the arguments and evidence, for and against changes to the existing minimum duty rates for alcoholic beverages that apply across all EU Member States.  The overarching objective of the study is to examine whether the current structures of alcohol taxation and the minimum rates laid […]

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Study on Consumer Detriment in the Area of Dynamic Packages

Sector:Public Policy
Client:EC DG SANCO
Published: November, 2009
Document type:Report

In a report published by EC DG Health and Consumers, LE Europe has estimated consumer detriment in EU-27 in the area of ‘dynamic travel packages’. A ‘dynamic package’ is a holiday package where different tourist services (flights, car rental, accommodation, excursions etc.) are put together at the same time to fit the specifications of a […]

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An Analysis of Teacher Mobility Within the European Union

Sector:Education and Labour Markets
Client:European Parliament
Published: December, 2008
Document type:Report

LE Europe were commissioned by the European Parliament to undertake an analysis of teacher mobility within the European Union. The study undertakes a quantitative and qualitative analysis of teacher mobility across the European Union Member States where information exists. It explores the relative benefits, costs, strengths and weaknesses of the various mobility programmes. On the […]

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Evaluation of the CAP Policy on Protected Designations of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indications (PGI)

Sector:Public Policy
Client:EC DG Agriculture
Published: November, 2008
Document type:Report

The study is based on two elements. A descriptive part provides a detailed analysis of the development of the Protected Designations of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indications (PGI) schemes over the course of the evaluation period, including the regulatory framework and the implementation mechanism underpinning the schemes. The second part of the project focuses […]

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Analysis of Developments in the Field of Direct Investment and M&A

Sector:Finance
Client:N/A
Published: November, 2008
Document type:Report

This study examines first the developments in international capital flows, especially FDI, in 2007. Next, as a special topic, it undertakes an in-depth quantitative analysis of the difference in economic performance between domestically-owned and foreign-owned business in Europe. The performance indicators used in the analysis are turnover, employment and profitability in levels and over the […]

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Study on the Role and Regulation of Non-credit Institutions in EU Mortgage Markets

Sector:Finance
Client:EC DG Internal Market
Published: September, 2008
Document type:Report

This study analyses non-credit institutions in EU Member State mortgage markets. The study identifies Member States where non-credit institutions are allowed to provide mortgage credit; provides information on the regulation and supervision of these undertakings; the funding techniques non-credit institutions are allowed to use; the size of the mortgage lending activities of non-credit institutions, both […]

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Economic Impacts of Increased Flexibility and Liberalisation in European Spectrum Management

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:A Group of European Telecom Companies
Published: April, 2008
Document type:Report

LE Europe was commissioned by a group of European communications sector companies to carry out an independent review of the available evidence examining the costs and benefits of greater flexibility in the use of radio spectrum. This report sets out the findings of that review and is based on existing studies that examine the actual […]

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Study on the Impact of Co-operative Groups on the Competitiveness of Their Craft and Small Enterprise Members

Sector:Public Policy
Client:EC DG Enterprise and Industry
Published: January, 2008
Document type:Report

LE Europe were commissioned by EC DG Enterprise and Industry to undertake an in-depth study on the impact of co-operative groups on the competitiveness of their craft and small enterprise members. The analysis undertaken was based on extensive identification of both co-operatives and their members across the European Union; primary data collection of information on […]

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IBPT Decision on the Approach to the Regulation of Price Squeeze in Telecommunications Markets

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:Institut Belge de Poste et Telecommunications
Published: July, 2007
Document type:Report

LE Europe assisted the Institut Belge de Poste et Telecommunications with the development of IBPT’s guidelines on its approach to the regulation of price squeeze in telecommunications markets. LE, working with legal advisors McDermott Will & Emery/Stanbrook LLP, advised on regulatory practices in other countries, on the appropriate structure of the test and on the […]

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Impact Assessment Relating to the Economic and Governance Evolution of Space in Europe

Sector:Space
Client:EC DG Enterprise and Industry
Published: April, 2007
Document type:Report

LE Europe were one of the contributors to this RPA led study for the European Commission’s DG Enterprise & Industry. The research reviewed the market for space and space related services, including the development of a number of demand scenarios, and also reviewed the roles of the key public sector actors and undertook an analysis […]

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Structure and Performance of Six European Wholesale Electricity Markets in 2003, 2004, and 2005

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:EC DG Competition
Published: February, 2007
Document type:Report

The report provides an in-depth assessment of the electricity wholesale markets in Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands and Great Britain with a view to determining how competitive markets were in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The report provides summary key results for traditional market structural indicators, electricity-specific measures of market structure and market outcome measures. […]

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Incentive Proposals for Quality of Service Measures in Finnish Electricity Distribution

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:EMV
Published: November, 2006
Document type:Report

This report, prepared for the Energy Market Authority of Finland (EMV) reviews how customer quality of service be regulated and recommends that the regulation include some form of incentives that result in rewards or penalties if measured targets are not met. It also proposes that specific regulations be enacted for separate service categories and reviews […]

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Impact Assessment of Implementing the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

Sector:Public Policy
Client:LE Economic Brief
Published: November, 2006
Document type:Report

This Economic Bried reports on an econometric assessment LE Europe has carried out of the likely trade impacts of adoption of the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS).

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The Case for State Lotteries

Sector:Public Policy
Client:European Lotteries and Toto Association
Published: September, 2006
Document type:Report

The report provides a comprehensive overview of the gaming market in the EU25 and assesses the likely impact of full liberalisation of gaming activities on lotteries and good causes funded by lotteries. The report also reviews the wider socio-economic effects of gaming.

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Study on the Economic Impact of Auditors’ Liability Regimes

Sector:Finance
Client:N/A
Published: September, 2006
Document type:Report

This study focuses on the market for statutory audits of large companies in Europe. It reviews first the state of the international market for audit firms in the EU. Next, it examines the insurance market for statutory audits. It then examines the likely short-run and long-run effects of the possible disappearance of one or more of […]

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An Assessment of the Regulatory Framework for Electronic Communications – Growth and Investment in the EU E-Communications Sector

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:EC DG Information Society
Published: July, 2006
Document type:Report

The study provides first data on investments in the electronic communications markets in the EU Member States and analyses sources of differences across Member States, sectors and competitors (incumbent versus new entrants).  Next, provides a comparative analysis of growth of the electronic communications sector in the EU and in other main geographical markets.  Finally, it […]

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Developments in Car Retailing and After-sales Markets Under Regulation 1400/2002

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:EC DG Competition
Published: June, 2006
Document type:Report

This report reviews market developments in automotive retailing and after-sales sectors following the entry into force of the Regulation No. 1400/2002 (the Block Exemption Regulation or, simply BER), the new EC regulation covering distribution and after sales services of new motor vehicles in the EU. The report focuses on the competition implications of the new […]

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Impact Assessment of Implementing GHS (Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals) – Trade Effects

Sector:Public Policy
Client:EC DG Enterprise and Industry
Published: May, 2006
Document type:Report

In July 2003, the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) was formally adopted by the UN ECOSOC. Its aim is to bring together the major world classification and labelling (C&L) systems of chemicals (substances and preparations/mixtures) into a single new system. This part of the impact assessment provides empirical evidence on […]

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Study on the Returns to Various Types of Investment in Education and Training

Sector:Education and Labour Markets
Client:EC DG Education Arts and Culture
Published: December, 2005
Document type:Report

LE Europe were commissioned to undertake a large-scale project for the EU Directorate General for Education, Arts and Culture on the rates of returns to the investment necessary to achieve the Lisbon educational targets using the European Labour Force Survey. The study computed the private and social costs of achieving the Lisbon targets for different […]

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The Costs and Benefits of Integration of EU Mortgage Markets

Sector:Finance
Client:EC DG Internal Market
Published: August, 2005
Document type:Report

LE Europe was commissioned by the European Commission – DG Internal Market and Services to study the costs and benefits of new initiatives that would lead to the full integration of markets for residential mortgages and home loans in the 25 EU Member States. The report estimates these costs and benefits and also assesses the […]

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Securities Trading, Clearing, Central Counterparties and Settlement in EU 25 – an Overview of Current Arrangements

Sector:Finance
Client:EC DG Competition
Published: June, 2005
Document type:Report

The report provides a description of the securities trading, clearing and settlement infrastructures of the cash equities and bonds markets in the 25 Member States of the EU (as of March 2005) and an assessment of the nature of the vertical agreements between the trading, clearing and settlement infrastructures.

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Structure and Functioning of the Electricity Market in Belgium in a European Perspective

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:CREG
Published: October, 2004
Document type:Report

LE Europe was commissioned by the General Council of the “Commission fédérale de Régulation de l’Electricité et du Gaz” (CREG) to analyse whether, and to what extent, the current federal regulation makes the markets for production, trading and supply of electricity competitive or potentially competitive and, if not, what remedies could be implemented. The report […]

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Ex-post Evaluation of the Impact of Rescue and Restructuring Aid on the International Competitiveness of the Sector(s) Affected by Such Aid

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:EC DG Enterprise and Industry
Published: June, 2004
Document type:Report

LE Europe was commissioned by the European Commission – DG Enterprise to evaluate the impact of rescue and restructuring aid on the international competitiveness on the sectors affected by such aid. This ex-post evaluation focuses on the survival of companies having received rescue and/or restructuring State aid, the social and economic effects of such aid […]

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A Synthesis of the Mid-term Evaluations of the FIFG 2000-2006

Sector:Public Policy
Client:EC DG Fisheries
Published: March, 2004
Document type:Report

This report for the European Commission – Directorate General For Fisheries summarises and highlights the key findings of 49 mid-term evaluations of the Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance 2000-2006. The results of the report were presented at the conference organised by the European Commission “Steering Towards 2007-2013: What Financial Support for the Common Fisheries Policy […]

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Overview of EU25 Securities Trading, Clearing, Central Counterparties, and Securities Settlement

Sector:Finance
Client:EC DG Competition
Published: February, 2004
Document type:Report

The report for the European Commission – DG Competition provides a pan-European overview of trading, clearing and central counterparties, settlement, and custody, of equity, corporate and government bonds, and the related infrastructures (exchanges, clearing institutions and central counterparties, central securities depositories and international central securities depositories at primary level and international central securities depositories and […]

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Study of the Consequences of Further Liberalisation of the Postal Market in Norway

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications
Published: December, 2003
Document type:Report

This Report for the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications provides consultancy advice on the consequences of further liberalisation of the postal market in Norway. The study evaluates the impact of postal liberalisation, based on qualitative analysis and quantitative modelling. Under each of the models, we assess the impacts on liberation across various scenarios, ranging […]

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Financial Markets and the Funding of Enterprises in the European Union: What Future?

Sector:Finance
Client:European Foundation for the improvement of living and working conditions
Published: July, 2003
Document type:Report

This report uses scenarios to explore the future landscape of the financial services industry in the European Union. The question posed is whether the structure of business finance will shift towards greater reliance on capital markets, equity and bonds, and away from bank finance. After reviewing the key factors that drove change in the nineties, […]

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Comparing the Economic Performance of Family Businesses and Non-family Businesses

Sector:Education and Labour Markets
Client:European Foundation for the improvement of living and working conditions
Published: June, 2003
Document type:Report

This report for the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions reviews the performance of family and non-family businesses. LE’s work surveys the key characteristics of family businesses and examines the empirical evidence comparing performance with non-family businesses. Four themes appear salient in linking the key characteristics with the business performance: ownership […]

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LE Europe Review of European Union Electricity Markets

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:ESB
Published: April, 2003
Document type:Report

This study reviews the regulatory regimes in the EU member states and examines how the differences in regulatory policy and openness to investment are likely to have had an impact on new investment.

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Assessment of Restrictions in the Supply of Professional Services

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:Irish Competition Authority
Published: March, 2003
Document type:Report

The LE Europe/Indecon report analyses competition and restrictions in eight professions in 3 sectors: engineers and architects, medical practitioners, veterinary surgeons, dentists and optometrists in the medical sector and solicitors and barristers in the legal sector. The report notes that three types of restrictions are common across the eight professions. These are restrictions on entry […]

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Study on a Methodology for Identifying Sectors with Serious Structural Problems

Sector:Competition, Regulation and Business
Client:EC DG Competition
Published: December, 2002
Document type:Report

LE Europe was commissioned by DG Competition state aid II to develop a general methodology to be used by EC officials to draw up an initial “List of sectors” where serious structural problems prevail. In the report we set out an analytical framework that reviews various aspects (sales, output, employment) of an industry when the […]

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Quantification of the Macro-Economic Impact of Integration of EU Financial Markets – Executive Summary

Sector:Finance
Client:Financial Services Authority
Published: November, 2002
Document type:Report

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Quantification of the Macro-Economic Impact of Integration of EU Financial Markets

Sector:Finance
Client:LE Presentation
Published: November, 2002
Document type:Report

“Financial Market Integration and Economic Growth: Quantifying the Effects”. European Commission. Brussels, Belgium. 19 February, 2003.

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Working Conditions in Hotels and Restaurants: National Reports for France, Italy, Portugal and Sweden

Sector:Education and Labour Markets
Client:European Foundation for the improvement of living and working conditions
Published: October, 2002
Document type:Report

The reports for European Foundation for the Improving of Living and Working Conditions assess the impact of trends such as globalisation, increased competition and developments in technology, and look at the role of social dialogue in the sectors. They also feature several examples of interesting and innovative practice at local and national level aimed at […]

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Working Conditions in Road Transport: National Reports for France, Italy, Portugal and Sweden

Sector:Education and Labour Markets
Client:European Foundation for the improvement of living and working conditions
Published: October, 2002
Document type:Report

The reports for the European Foundation for the Improving of Living and Working Conditions assess the impact of trends such as globalisation, increased competition and developments in technology, and look at the role of social dialogue in the sectors. They also feature several examples of interesting and innovative practice at local and national level aimed […]

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The Economic and Societal Contribution of Hyundai and Kia in Europe – October 2017

Sector:Public Policy
Client:Hyundai Motor Company
Published:
Document type:Report

This report provides a quantification of the economic and societal benefits deriving from the presence of Hyundai and Kia in Europe. The report draws on the most up-to-date data on the operations of Hyundai and Kia in Europe, as well as official and industry data sources. The focus of the report is on the direct […]

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